Showing posts with label May. Show all posts
Showing posts with label May. Show all posts

Saturday, May 5, 2018

St Honoratus of Arles (May 5)

Saint Honorat or Saint Honoré (c. 350 – January 6, 429) was an early Archbishop of Arles, who was also an Abbot of Lérins Abbey.

It is believed that he was born in the north of Gaul and that he belonged to a consular Roman family. Honoratus received an outstanding education. Converted to Christianity with his brother Venantius, he embarked with him from Marseilles about 368, under the guidance of a holy person named Caprasius, to visit the holy places of Palestine and the lauræ of Syria and Egypt. But the death of Venantius, occurring suddenly at Methone, Achaia, prevented the pious travellers from going further.

They returned to Gaul through Italy, and, after having stopped at Rome, Honoratus went on into Provence and, encouraged by Leontius, bishop of Fréjus, took up his abode in the wild Lérins Island today called the Île Saint-Honorat, with the intention of living there in solitude.

Numerous disciples soon gathered around Honoratus, including Lupus of Troyes, Eucherius of Lyon, and Hilary of Arles. Thus was founded the Monastery of Lérins, which has enjoyed so great a celebrity status and which was, during the 5th and 6th centuries, a nursery for illustrious bishops and remarkable ecclesiastical writers. His Rule of Life was chiefly borrowed from that of St. Pachomius. It is believed St. Patrick trained there for his missionary work in Ireland.

St Honoratus's reputation for sanctity throughout the southeastern portion of Gaul was such that in 426 after the assassination of Patroclus, Archbishop of Arles, he was summoned from his solitude to succeed to the government of the diocese, which the Arian and Manichaean heresies had greatly disturbed. He appears to have succeeded in re-establishing order and orthodoxy.

St John Cassian, who had visited his monastery, dedicated to him several of his Conferences.

Sunday, October 1, 2017

Ordo notes for May 2018

The notes below are designed to assist those wishing to say the Benedictine Office according to the officially approved 1962 books (noting that older books can readily be adapted to this end).

They provides notes on the variable parts of the Office only, so should be read in conjunction with the Learn to Say the Benedictine Office notes provided elsewhere on the blog.

Key to the abbreviations:

MD= Monastic Diurnal (MD, 2004 onwards editions)
AM =Antiphonale Monasticum 1934 (1995 edition).
LR=Liber Responsorialis (downloadable from CC Watershed) and the Nocturnale Romanum.
LH=Liber Hymnarius, 1983
SupAM=Supplement to the Antiphonale Monasticum published by Clear Creek.


Tuesday 1 May – St Joseph the Worker, Class I

Note choice of Offices: MD [126] ff or [133] ff

Matins: All of the feast with twelve readings and responsories – Invitatory and hymn, LH 370-1

Lauds: Festal psalms, antiphons and other texts for the feast

Prime to None: Antiphons etc of the feast

Vespers: Psalms from the Common of Apostles, rest of the feast

Wednesday 2 May – St Athanasius, Class III

Matins: Invitatory and hymn of a confessor bishop (LR 190-1); one reading of the feast; psalms and antiphons of the day

Lauds and Vespers: Psalms and antiphons of the day, rest from Common of a Confessor Bishop, MD (84)/AM 659, except collect, MD [138]/AM 896 and Magnificat antiphon (of a Doctor), MD (74)/AM 665

Prime to None: Antiphons etc from the Common, MD [138]

Thursday 3 May – SS Alexander, Eventius and Theodolus, memorial [in some places: Finding of Holy Cross]

For finding of Holy Cross: LR 437/AM 896

Ordinary of Eastertide; canticle antiphons for Lauds and Vespers (Thursday in fourth week after the Octave of Easter), MD 371*/AM 497-8; collect, MD 368*/AM 494; for the commemoration at Lauds, MD [138-9]

Friday 4 May - Class IV; St Monica, memorial [EF: Class III]

Ordinary of Eastertide; canticle antiphons for Lauds and Vespers, MD 371*/AM 498; collect for the fourth week after Easter, MD 368*/AM 494; for the commemoration, MD [139-40]/AM 903

Saturday 5 May – Class IV - Our Lady on Saturday; St Pius V, memorial [EF: Class III]

Matins: Office of our Lady in Eastertide with reading for Saturday 1 in May

Lauds to None: Office of Our Lady, MD (134)/718 ff; note that the antiphons and versicles for Prime to None should have alleluias added to them; for the commemoration at Lauds, MD [140]/903

I Vespers of Fifth Sunday after Easter, MD 372*/AM 499 ff

Sunday 6 May – Fifth Sunday after Easter, Class II

Matins: Invitatory (Surrexit Dominus), hymn (Rex sempiterne), Gospel, twelve readings and responsories of the Sunday

Lauds: (Three) Antiphons for Eastertide with festal psalms for Eastertide, rest from MD 373*/AM 499 ff

Prime to None: Antiphons of Eastertide, Sunday psalms; Terce to None:  chapter verse, versicle and collect, MD 373-4*/AM 500 ff

Vespers: Psalms of Sunday under one antiphon; chapter of Lauds; responsory and hymn, MD 354*/AM 466; Magnificat antiphon, MD 375*/AM 501

Monday 7 May – Class IV (Rogation Day) [EF: St Stanislaus, Class III]

Ordinary of Eastertide, MD 346*/AM 466 ff; canticle antiphons for Lauds and Vespers (Monday in the fifth week after Easter), MD 375*/AM 501-2; collect, MD 373-4*/AM 500

Tuesday 8 May – Class IV (Rogation Day)

Ordinary of Eastertide; canticle antiphons for Lauds and Vespers, MD 375-6*/AM 503; collect, MD 373-4*/AM 500

Wednesday 9 May Vigil of the Ascension, Class II; Commemoration of St Gregory Nazianzen

Matins: All as for the Ordinary of Eastertide except for the three readings and responsories of the day

Lauds to None: all as for ordinary of Paschaltide; collect, MD 373-4*/AM 504; at Lauds, versicle and Benedictus antiphon MD 376*/AM 503-4; commemoration of St Gregory, MD (63)&[141]/AM 905


I Vespers of the Ascension, see MD 376*/AM 505 ff

Thursday 10 May - The Ascension of Our Lord, Class I

Matins: Invitatory, hymn, antiphons, psalms, Gospel, twelve readings and responsories of the feast, LR 94 ff

Lauds: Festal psalms with proper antiphons and texts of the feast, MD 379*/AM 508 ff

Prime to None: Antiphons etc of the feast, MD 382-3*/AM 511

Vespers: as for I Vespers, with Magnificat antiphon, MD 383*/AM 512

Friday 11 May - SS Philip and James, Class II [Ben. Confed: St. Odo, St. Maiolus, St. Odilo, St. Hugh and Blessed Peter the Venerable, abbots of Cluny – Memorial]

Matins: All from the Common of Apostles during Eastertide (LR 162), except for readings and responsories, of the feast

Lauds to Vespers: Antiphons and canticle antiphons of the feast, MD [142]/AM 893 ff, rest from the Common of Apostles in Eastertide, MD (23) ff.  At Lauds and Vespers, festal psalms.

Saturday 12 May – Our Lady on Saturday, Class IV; SS Nereus, Archilleus and Pancras, memorial [EF: Class III, and Domitilla]

Matins: Office of our Lady in Eastertide with reading for Saturday 2 in May

Lauds to None: Office of Our Lady, MD (134)/718 ff; note that the antiphons and versicles for Prime to None should have alleluias added to them; for the commemoration at Lauds, MD [146]/AM 905

I Vespers of the Sunday after the Ascension, MD 388*/AM 513 (Note antiphon is Alleluia…)

Sunday 13 May – Sunday after the Ascension, Class II

[Note: The feast of St Robert Bellarmine is not marked in the Office this year]

Matins: Invitatory antiphon, hymn, antiphons, Gospel and readings for the Sunday

Lauds: Festal psalms with three antiphons (alleluia - canticle - alleluia); chapter etc from MD 389*/AM 513 ff

Prime to None: Antiphons, etc from MD 391*/AM 514 ff

Vespers: Psalms of Sunday under one antiphon; chapter and hymn of Lauds; responsory and Magnificat antiphon, MD 393*/AM 515

Monday 14 May – Class IV, St Pachomius, Memorial [EF: Commemoration of St Boniface]

Matins:  Ordinary of Ascensiontide, viz Invitatory Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia; hymn Aeterne Rex altissime (LH 82); versicles, short reading (Heb 6:18-20), short responsory (Dominus in caelo) and chapter (Eph 2:6-7) of the season

Lauds to Vespers: Ordinary of the Ascension, MD 386*, that is:
Lauds and Vespers: chapter, Conresuscitavit (Eph 2:6-7) with short responsory, hymn, versicle and canticle antiphons of Ascension, AM 510&512
Terce to None: versicles of the Ascension with chapters Eph 2:6-7 at Terce; Eph 1:20-21 at Sext; and Eph 1:22-3 at None
For the commemoration at Lauds, MD [147-8]; SupAnt 74

Tuesday 15 May – Class IV [EF: St John Baptist de la Salle; Ben Confed: St. Pacomius, abbot - Optional Memorial

Ordinary of the Ascension, MD 386* ff

Wednesday 16 May – Class IV [EF: St Ubald]

Ordinary of the Ascension, MD 386* ff

Thursday 17 May - Class IV [EF: St Pascal Baylon, Class III]

Ordinary of the Ascension, MD 386* ff

Friday 18 May - Class IV [EF: St Venantius]

Ordinary of the Ascension, MD 386* ff

Saturday 19 May - Whitsun Eve (Vigil of the Pentecost), Class I

Matins: Ordinary of Ascensiontide but with three readings and responsories of the day

Lauds to None: Ordinary of the Ascension, MD 386*


I Vespers of Pentecost, MD 393*/AM 517 ff (Sunday psalms with antiphons and rest of the feast)

Sunday 20 May - Pentecost Sunday, Class I with Class I Octave

Matins: Invitatory antiphon, hymn, antiphons, psalms, Gospel and twelve readings and responsories of the feast, LR 107 ff

Lauds: Antiphons etc of the feast, MD 396*/AM 520 ff; festal psalms of Sunday

Prime to None: Antiphons etc of the feast, MD 400*/AM 523; at Terce, hymn Veni Creator

Vespers: All as for I Vespers except for the Magnificat antiphon, MD 402-3*/AM 524-5

Monday 21 May – Whit Monday, Class I

Matins: Two nocturns, with invitatory antiphon, hymn, psalms and antiphons as for Nocturns I &II of Sunday with three readings of the day are of the day OR Invitatory and hymn of the feast with psalms of the day

Lauds to Vespers: As for Pentecost Sunday, including the psalms, except the Canticle antiphons and collect, MD 403*/AM 525-6; at Terce, hymn Veni Creator

Tuesday 22 May – Whit Tuesday, Class I

Matins: As for Sunday omitting Nocturn III, with three readings OR Invitatory and hymn of the feast with psalms of the day

Lauds to Vespers: As for Pentecost Sunday except the Canticle antiphons and collect, MD 403-4*/AM 527

Wednesday 23 May – Ember Wednesday, Class I

Matins: Invitatory and hymn of the feast; psalms of the Wednesday under one antiphon of the feast; readings of the day

Lauds to Vespers: As for Pentecost Sunday except the Canticle antiphons and collect, MD 404-5*/.AM 528

Thursday 24 May - Whit Thursday, Class I [Note in Australia, Our Lady Help of Christians is transferred to next Monday in the traditional calendar]

Matins: Invitatory and hymn of the feast; psalms of the Thursday under one antiphon of the feast; readings of the day

Lauds to Vespers: As for Pentecost Sunday except the Canticle antiphons and collect, MD 405*/AM 529-30

Friday 25 May – Ember Friday, Class I

[St Gregory VII is not celebrated in the Office this year]

Matins: Invitatory and hymn of the feast; psalms of the Friday under one antiphon of the feast; readings of the day

Lauds to Vespers: As for Pentecost Sunday except the Canticle antiphons and collect, MD 405-6*/AM 530

Saturday 26 May – Ember Saturday, Class I

[St Augustine is not celebrated in the Office this year]

Matins: Invitatory and hymn of the feast; psalms of the Saturday under one antiphon of the feast; readings of the day

Lauds to None: As for Pentecost Sunday except the Benedictus antiphon and collect, MD 406-7*/AM 531


I Vespers of the Most Holy Trinity, MD 407*/AM 532 ff (Sunday psalms with antiphons and rest of the feast; no commemoration of the Sunday)

**Compline: Marian Antiphon Salve Regina from henceforward

Sunday 27 May – Feast of the Most Holy Trinity, Class I

[St Bede is not celebrated in the Office this year]

Matins: All of the feast, with three Nocturns (Invitatory antiphon and hymn, LR 440-1; psalms, canticles, antiphons, Gospel, twelve readings and responsories of the feast)

Lauds: Festal psalms, of the feast, MD 409/AM 535 ff

Prime: Antiphon of the feast, after the psalms, the Athanasian Creed is said, MD 411*/AM 539 ff

Terce to None: Antiphons, chapters and versicle of the feast, MD 416*/AM 541 ff

Vespers: As for I Vespers except for Magnificat antiphon, MD 418*/AM 541 (no commemoration of the Sunday)

The Ordinary of the Office for time throughout the year is set out in the psalter section of the Diurnal.

Monday 28 May - Class IV [EF: St Augustine OSB, Class III; Australia and NZ: Our Lady Help of Christians, transferred]

All as in the psalter for time throughout the year (at Matins, short reading of the day of the week), collect of the first Sunday after Pentecost, MD 418*/AM 535 (Deus in te sperantium)

Australia: Our Lady Help of Christians, MD 28** (for Matins, Common of the BVM)

Tuesday 29 May - Class IV [EF: St Mary Magdalen of Pazzi]

Matins to Compline: All as set out in the psalter – At Matins one reading of the day for summer; collect, MD 418*/AM 535

Wednesday 30 May – Class IV [EF: Commemoration of St Felix]

Matins to None: All as in the psalter for time throughout the year, collect, MD 418*/AM 535

I Vespers of Corpus Christi: Psalms and antiphons, etc of the feast, MD 419*/AM 543 ff

Thursday 31 May – Corpus Christi, Class I

: All of the feast, with three Nocturns/twelve readings and responsories, LR 119 ff

LaudsFestal psalms of Sunday with antiphons etc of the feast, MD 427*/550 ff

Prime to None: Antiphon, chapter and versicle, MD 430-1*/AM 554

Vespers: As for I Vespers, MD 419* ff except for the Magnificat antiphon, MD 431*/AM 555

Saturday, May 27, 2017

St Bede the Venerable, OSB

Image result for ezra restoring the bible
Codex Amiatinus depiction of Ezra,
 produced at Wearmouth-Jarrow in Bede's time

St Bede, I have to say, is currently my favourite saint.

Back in the day, Blessed Cardinal Newman wrote that 'Bede is truly the pattern of a Benedictine as is St Thomas of a Dominican'.   Today's Matins reading nicely sets out just why this is:
Bede the priest was born at Jarrow, on the borders of England and Scotland. When a monk, he so arranged his life as to devote himself completely to the study of the liberal arts and sacred doctrine, without in any way relaxing the discipline of the Rule. There was no kind of learning in which he was not thoroughly versed; but his special interest was the study of the Scriptures; and when he was made a priest, he undertook the task of explaining the holy books. In doing so, he adhered to the teaching of the holy Fathers so closely that he would say nothing not already approved by their judgment, and he even made use of their very words. Abhorring laziness, he would go straight from reading to prayer and from prayer to reading. To raise the level of morality among Christians and to defend and spread the faith, he wrote many books, which gained him such a reputation with everyone that his writings were publicly read in churches during his own lifetime. At length, worn out with age and labours, he fell asleep peacefully in the Lord. Leo XIII declared him a Doctor of the universal Church.
Although Bede's history of the English Church has long been available and appreciated, along with some of his lives of the saints, his output was actually much broader than this, including scientific works, guides to the holy lands, and a number of exegetical works.  English translations of his exegetical works are still only gradually becoming available, and this is leading to a new appreciation of Bede's originality: though he certainly drew heavily on the Fathers in his work, he was very much concerned with the politics of both church and state of his time, and his exegetical works in particular reflect this.

But for me at least, the most startling aspect of his work, though one not always acknowledged in modern translations of and commentary on his works (the exemplary work and valiant efforts of Scott DeGregorio aside) due to some typical 1970s revisionism, is the degree to which the Rule shaped his mindset.

Allusions to the Rule are scattered throughout his writings to the point where one can pretty much construct a commentary on the Rule from them (the Homilies alone for example include references to 50/73 tools of good works and 33 chapters of the Rule), and indeed even his use of Scriptural quotes frequently reflect's St Benedict use of the relevant text.  And while I've seen several theories advanced for the selection of the books of the Bible that he focused on, I haven't seen anyone as yet note what seem to me to be the obvious links between many of the texts he chose and his key themes (such as the Temple and Tabernacle) and the Rule...

Regardless, St Bede is an important saint well worth learning more about: a saint who lived a good life; provided us with a great legacy of his learning; and who also died a particularly holy death, which you can read about in this great post from A Clerk of Oxford.

Friday, May 26, 2017

St Augustine of Canterbury OSB (May 26) - Apostle to the English

Illuminated manuscript with a forward-facing man in the middle of the large H. Man is carrying a crozier and his head is surrounded by a halo.

St Augustine of Canterbury was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597.

The Matins reading for the feast is as follows:
Augustine, a monk of the Lateran monastery in Rome, was sent by Gregory the Great in 597 to England with about forty monks as his companions. They were invited by King Ethelbert to Canterbury, the chief city of the kingdom, and they built an oratory nearby. Through preaching the doctrine of heaven, Augustine brought many of the islanders and the king himself to the Christian faith, to the great joy of the king's wife, Bertha, who was a Christian. By order of Pope Gregory, Augustine was ordained bishop and founded the see of Canterbury; by the same Pontiff he was granted the use of the pallium and the right to organize the hierarchy of England. At length, after suffering great hardships for Christ, having set Mellitus over the Church of London, Justus over that of Rochester, and Lawrence over his own Church, he made his journey to heaven on the 26th day of May. He was buried in the monastery of St. Peter, which then became the burial place of bishops of Canterbury and of several kings.
He has traditionally been considered the "Apostle to the English" and a founder of the English Church.  St Bede records in his history of the English Church that the monks converted the locals by their preaching and example:
"…they began to emulate the life of the apostles and the primitive Church. They were constantly at prayer; they fasted and kept vigils; they preached the word of life to whomsoever they could….Before long a number of heathen, admiring the simplicity of their holy lives and the comfort of their heavenly message, believed and were baptized..."
St Augustine established schools and monasteries, and set about organising the missionary effort more broadly in England. His life was marked by miracles, and he was quickly acclaimed as a saint on his death.

Monday, May 22, 2017

St Romanus (May 22)

Today the martyrology remembers St Romanus, who clothed St Benedict in the holy habit, and aided him in his early years as a hermit:
But Benedict, desiring rather the miseries of the world than the praises of men: rather to be wearied with labour for God's sake, than to be exalted with transitory commendation: fled privily from his nurse, and went into a desert place called Sublacum, distant almost forty miles from Rome: in which there was a fountain springing forth cool and clear water; the abundance whereof doth first in a broad place make a lake, and afterward running forward, cometh to be a river.  
As he was travelling to this place, a certain monk called Romanus met him, and demanded whither he went, and understanding his purpose, he both kept it close, furthered him what he might, vested him with the habit of holy conversation, and as he could, did minister and serve him. 
The man of God, Benedict, coming to this foresaid place, lived there in a strait cave, where he continued three years unknown to all men, except to Romanus, who lived not far off, under the rule of Abbot Theodacus, and very virtuously did steal certain hours, and likewise sometime a loaf given for his own provision, which he did carry to Benedict....(St Gregory, Dialogues 2:1)
The tradition holds that St Romanus later went to Gaul and founded a small monastery at Dryes-Fontrouge, where he died about 550 and was venerated as a saint. 

Monday, May 15, 2017

St Pachomius (May 14/15)


 The feast of St Pachomius (circa 272-348) is celebrated in the modern Benedictine calendar today (May 15); in the 1962 calendar is memorial is May 14.  He is an important saint for monastics, as the author of the first known rule for coenibites (monks living in community).

Saint Pachomius was born in Egypt to pagan parents and was forced to become a soldier at age 21.  In this capacity he encountered a group of Christians ministering to the troops, and was so impressed by them that he decided to investigate the faith once he had left the army.  He was duly converted and baptised, and initially sought the guidance of a hermit named Palaemon.  After a few years he set out to live near St Antony, whose practices he imitated until Pachomius heard a voice in Tabennisi that told him to build a dwelling for the hermits to come to.  He established his first monastery 318 and 323, and the community grew rapidly, and made several new foundations.

You can read a life of the saint, translated from the Greek into Latin by one of St Benedict's contemporaries, Dionysius Exiguus, here.

Thursday, May 11, 2017

Feast of SS Philip and James

 Detail of reredos | Polytych by Maestà | Wikimedia
Duccio di Buoninsegna
Today is the feast of SS Philip and James.  Their feast was originally celebrated together on May 1, the anniversary of the dedication of the Church housing their relics in Rome, established in the mid sixth century.  The Church in question, however, was later renamed as the Church of the Twelve Apostles (though there are some suggests it was always officially called that), so I guess the change of date is not as unfortunate as it might seem...

You can find the readings and responsories for the feast here, and additional notes on saying and/or singing Matins of the feast here.

You can also find Pope Benedict XVI's General Audiences on these saints here:

Tuesday, May 9, 2017

St Gregory Nazianzus (May 9), Class III


The reading for the feast of St Gregory at Matins is as follows:
Gregory Nazianzus, a noble Cappadocian, earned the name of The Divine from his extraordinary knowledge of the sacred sciences. It was to these that he turned after being educated at Athens, together with St. Basil, in every branch of learning. He was first made Bishop of Sosima and then administered the Church of Nazianzus. Summoned to rule over the Church of Constantinople, he purged the city of heretical errors and brought it back to the Catholic faith. Although this deed should have won him the love of all, it earned him the hatred of many; so that, when a great quarrel had arisen among the bishops on his account, he resigned his See voluntarily, making his own the words of the prophet Jonah: If this storm hath arisen on my account, then throw me into the sea, that you may cease to be tossed about. He returned to Nazianzus, and having arranged that Eulalius should be its bishop, devoted himself wholly to prayer and the study of divine things. He wrote many famous works, both in prose and in verse, and was a most ardent defender of the doctrine of the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father. When Theodosius was emperor, Gregory, now grown old, departed to the life of heaven.
If you would like to know more about the saint and his teachings, Pope Benedict XVI gave two General Audiences which you find by following the links:

General Audience of 8 August 2007
General Audience of 22 August 2007

Wednesday, May 3, 2017

Finding of Holy Cross (May 3)

Unless you are on oblate of Le Barroux (or another monastery that retains this feast), today is not the feast of the Finding of Holy Cross.

But it should be.

The Finding of Holy Cross is one of those feasts that fell victim to the calendar reforms of the 1950s and early 1960s, when it was combined with the Feast of the Exaltation of Holy Cross (which celebrates the dedication of the Church of the Holy Sepulcre).

It celebrated St Helena's (mother of Constantine the Great) discovery of the Holy Sepulcre in Jerusalem, and subsequent discovery of the Cross at the site.

Here are the readings on the subject from the former Roman version of the feast:
After that famous victory which the Emperor Constantine gained over Maxentius, in the year 312, on the eve of which the banner of the Cross of the Lord had been given to him from heaven, Helen, the mother of Constantine, being warned in a dream, came to Jerusalem, in 326, to seek for the Cross. There it was her care to cause to be overthrown the marble statue of Venus, which had stood on Calvary for about one hundred and eighty years, and which had originally been put there to desecrate and destroy the memorial of the sufferings of the Lord Christ. The like work Helen did at Bethlehem, by cleansing from an image of Adonis the stable where the Saviour was born, and from an idol of Jupiter, the place where He had arisen from the dead. 
Then she had thus cleansed the place where the Cross had stood, Helen caused deep excavations to be made, which resulted in the discovery of three crosses, and, apart from them, the writing which had been nailed on that of the Lord. But which of the crosses had been His was unknown, and was only manifested by a miracle. Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, after offering solemn prayers to God, touched with each of the three a woman who was afflicted with a grievous disease. The two first had no effect, but at the touch of the third she was immediately healed. 
Helen, after she had found the life-giving Cross, built over the site of the Passion a Church of extraordinary splendour, wherein she deposited part of the Cross, shut up in a silver case. Another part which she gave to her son, Constantine, was laid up in the Church of the Holy Cross of Jerusalem, which he built at Rome on the site of the Sessorian Palace. She also gave to her son the nails with which the Most Holy Body of Jesus Christ had been pierced. Constantine established a law abolishing the punishment of crucifixion for all time coming and thenceforth what had hitherto been a hissing and a curse among men, began to be esteemed worshipful and glorious.