Saturday, January 27, 2018

Ordo notes for the week of Septuagesima Sunday (Jan 28-Feb 3)

The notes below are designed to assist those wishing to say the Benedictine Office according to the officially approved 1962 books (noting that older books can readily be adapted to this end).

You can find notes on the rubrics of Septuagesimatide here.  The key thing to remember is that the word Alleluia is not used after I Vespers of this Sunday, and so alternative antiphons for phrases are substituted in.


They provides notes on the variable parts of the Office only, so should be read in conjunction with the Learn to Say the  Benedictine Office notes provided elsewhere on the blog.


Key to the abbreviations:
MD= Monastic Diurnal (MD, 2004 onwards editions)

AM =Antiphonale Monasticum 1934 (1995 edition).
LR=Liber Responsorialis (downloadable from CC Watershed) and the Nocturnale Romanum.
LH=Liber Hymnarius, 1983
SupAM=Supplement to the Antiphonale Monasticum published by Clear Creek.


THE ORDO


Sunday 28 January – Septuagesima Sunday, Class II

[The feast of St Cyril is not marked in the Office this year]

Matins: Invitatory antiphon for the Septuagesimatide Sundays (Preoccupemus faciem Domini); hymn Primo dierum (from the psalter); readings, responsories and collect of the Sunday; note that the Alleluia is not used, antiphons for Septuagesima instead.

Lauds: Antiphons and proper texts, MD 154*/AM 312 ff, with psalms of Sunday (Ps 50, 117, 62)

Prime to None: Antiphons etc for the day from MD 158-9*

Vespers: Psalms and antiphons of Sunday; chapter, responsory, hymn etc for the day, from MD 159*/AM 315 ff

Monday 29 January – Class IV; St Francis de Sales, memorial [EF: Class III]

**For St Frances as Class I, see MD 21**

Matins: Note: In Nocturn II, antiphons of Septuagesima henceforth; three readings of the day (feria II after Septuagesima Sunday)

Collect, MD 157*/AM 313

Laudsfor the commemoration, MD [44–5]/AM 665/798

Vespers: Magnificat antiphon MD 161*/AM 316

Tuesday 30 January – Class IV [EF: St Martina]

Collect, MD 157*/AM 313; Magnificat antiphon for Vespers, MD 161*/AM 317

Wednesday 31 January – Class IV; St John Bosco, memorial [EF: Class III]

Collect, MD 157*/AM 313

Lauds: for the commemoration, MD [45-6]/AM 743 (plus collect from SupAM 35 or Missal or Diurnal)

Vespers: Magnificat antiphons MD 161*/317


Thursday 1 February - St Ignatius, Class III

Matins: Invitatory and hymn from Common of a martyr (LR 148); psalms and antiphons of the day; reading 1&2 of the feria (combine readings 2&3; use responsories 1&3 of the feria), third reading and responsory  of the feast

Lauds and Vespers: Psalms and antiphons of the day, the rest from the Common of one martyr, MD (31)/AM 641; collect of the feast, MD [46]/AM 800

Prime to None: Antiphons, etc from the common

Friday 2 February - Purification of the BVM, Class II

Matins: Invitatory of the feast, Ecce venit ad templum, LR 433; hymn, psalms and antiphons from the Common of feasts of the BVM, LR 245; Gospel, twelve readings and responsories of the feast

Lauds: Proper antiphons and texts for the feast, MD [49]/AM 802 ff with festal psalms

Prime to None: Antiphons of Lauds; chapter, versicle and collect of the feast at Terce to None

Vespers: Antiphons of Lauds; psalms and propers from Common of BVM, MD (119)/AM 800, Magnificat antiphon, MD [51-2]/AM 805

****Compline: Antiphon of Our Lady, Ave Regina Caelorum, MD 266/AM 175 or 179 (and henceforward)

Saturday 3 February  Saturday of Our Lady; St Blase, Memorial

Matins: Reading 3 of Our Lady, Saturday 1 in February

Lauds to None: MD (129) ff; for the commemoration at Lauds, MD [52]/AM 737/805

I Vespers of Sexagesima Sunday, MD 162*/AM 318 ff

Thursday, January 25, 2018

From the martyrology: Conversion of St Paul; St Poppo OSB (Jan 25)


1467 Polish

Today in the Extraordinary Form, Ordinary Form and traditional Benedictine Office we celebrate the famous conversion of St Paul:

"The conversion of St. Paul the Apostle, which occurred in the second year after the Ascension of our Lord."

Bamberg, Church of SS Peter and George

The martyrology also mentions, however, St Poppo, an eleventh century monastic reformer:

"At Marchiennes in France, St. Poppo, priest and abbot, renowned for his miracles."

St Poppo had a colourful life, as the Catholic Encyclopedia chronicles:

"Abbot, born 977; died at Marchiennes, 25 January, 1048. He belonged to a noble family of Flanders; his parents were Tizekinus and Adalwif. About the year 1000 he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land with two others of his countrymen. Soon after this he also went on a pilgrimage to Rome. He was about to marry a lady of noble family, when an impressive experience led him to seek another mode of life. As he was journeying late at night a flame burst forth over his head and his lance radiated a brilliant light. He believed this to be an illumination of the Holy Spirit, and soon after, 1005, he entered the monastery of St. Thierry at Reims."

He was appointed to head a number of monasteries to aid their reform in the spirit of Cluny, working under the guidance of St Richard of Saint-Vannes.

Wednesday, January 24, 2018

SS Timothy and Suranus, Abbot (Jan 24)



Today in the Office we celebrate in the Office the feast of St Timothy, of whom the martyrology says:

"At Ephesus, St. Timothy, disciple of the apostle St. Paul, who ordained him bishop of that city.  After many labours for Christ, he was stoned for rebuking those who offered sacrifices to Diana, and shortly after went peacefully to his rest in the Lord."

But also mentioned is St Suranus:

"Also, blessed Suranus, abbot, who lived in the time of the Lombards."

The saint is mentioned in Book I of St Gregory's Dialogues:

"At such time as I yet lived in the Monastery, I understood by the relation of certain religious men, that in the time of the Lombards, in this very province called Sura and not far off, there was an holy Abbot called Suranus, who bestowed upon certain prisoners, which had escaped their hands, all such things as he had in his Monastery: and when he had given away in alms all his own apparel, and whatsoever he could find either in the monks' cells or in the yards, and nothing was left: suddenly the Lombards came thither, took him prisoner, and demanded where his gold was: and when he told them that he had nothing, they carried him to an hill hard by, where there was a mighty great wood in which a certain prisoner that ran away from them had hid himself in an hollow tree. There one of the Lombards, drawing out his sword, slew the foresaid venerable Abbot, whose body as it fell to the ground, suddenly all the hill together with the wood did shake, as though the earth by that trembling had said, that it could not bear the weight of his holiness and virtue."

Sunday, January 21, 2018

St Agnes (January 21)



Zenobi Strozzi, c1448-9
From the 1962 Roman Martyrology:

"At Rome, the passion of St. Agnes, virgin, who under Symphronius, governor of the city, was thrown into the fire, but after it was extinguished by her prayers, she was slain with the sword.  Of her, St. Jerome writes: "Agnes is praised in the writings and by the tongues of all nations, especially in the churches.  She overcame the weakness of her age, conquered the cruelty of the tyrant, and consecrated her chastity by martyrdom."

Saturday, January 20, 2018

Ordo notes for the third week after the Epiphany (Jan 21-27)

The notes below are designed to assist those wishing to say the Benedictine Office according to the officially approved 1962 books (noting that older books can readily be adapted to this end).

They provides notes on the variable parts of the Office only, so should be read in conjunction with the Learn to Say the  Benedictine Office notes provided elsewhere on the blog.


Key to the abbreviations:
MD= Monastic Diurnal (MD, 2004 onwards editions)

AM =Antiphonale Monasticum 1934 (1995 edition).
LR=Liber Responsorialis (downloadable from CC Watershed) and the Nocturnale Romanum.
LH=Liber Hymnarius, 1983
SupAM=Supplement to the Antiphonale Monasticum published by Clear Creek.

THE ORDO



Sunday 21 January – Third Sunday after Epiphany, Class II; Commemoration of St Agnes [**in some places, St Meinrad, Class I]

Matins: All as in the psalter; readings, responsories and collect of the Sunday

Lauds: Psalm schema 1 – 50, 117, 62; hymn Aeterne rerum Conditor; collect and canticle antiphon from MD 148*/AM 307*; commemoration of St Agnes (for monasteries of nuns), MD [29]/AM 787-8

Prime to Vespers: All as in the psalter for Sunday, collect and canticle antiphon, MD 148*/AM 307

For St Meinrad, Class I, MD 16**ff

Monday 22 January – Class IV; St Vincent, memorial [EF: and St Anastasius;**in some places, St Meinrad]

Matins: Three readings (feria II of third week after Epiphany)

Lauds, Terce to VespersCollect MD 148*/AM 307; for the commemoration, MD [34]/AM 737/789

For St Meinrad, Class II, MD 20**

Tuesday 23 January – Class IV; St Emerentiana, memorial [EF: St Raymond Pennafort]

Matins: Three readings

Lauds, Terce to Vespers: Collect MD 148*/AM 307; for the commemoration at Lauds, see MD [35]/AM 744/790

Wednesday 24 January – Class IV; St Timothy, memorial [EF: Class III]

Matins: Three readings

Lauds, Terce to Vespers: Collect MD 148*/AM 307; at Lauds, for the commemoration MD [35–6]/AM 736/790

Thursday 25 January – Conversion of St Paul, Class III

Matins: Invitatory (Laudemus Deus) and hymn (Doctor egregie), LR 432-3; readings and collect of the feast; rest as in the psalter 

Lauds: Antiphons and proper texts for the feast, MD [36]/AM 792 ff with festal psalms, with collects of St Paul and St Peter under one conclusion

Prime to None: Antiphons etc of the feast, MD [39] ff with hymns and psalms (for 'throughout the week'); collect of St Paul

Vespers: Antiphons for the feast, with psalms for the Common of Apostles, MD (13)/AM 626; chapter, responsory etc for the feast, with collects of St Paul and St Peter under one conclusion

Friday 26 January – Class IV; St Polycarp, memorial [EF: Class III; Ben. Confed: St. Robert, St. Alberic and St. Stephen, abbots of Citeaux - Optional Memorial]

Matins: Three readings

Lauds, Terce to Vespers: Collect MD 148*/AM 307; for the commemoration at Lauds, MD [42-3]/AM 737/797

Saturday 27 January – St John Chrysostom, Class III

Matins: Invitatory and hymn from Common of a confessor bishop (LR 190); psalms and antiphons of the day; reading 1&2 of the feria (combine readings 2&3; use responsories 1&3 of the feria), reading and responsory 3 of the feast

Lauds: Antiphons and psalms of the day, rest from Common of a confessor bishop, MD (64)/AM 659; collect of the feast, MD [43]/AM 797

Prime to None: Antiphons etc from the Common

I Vespers of Septuagesima Sunday, MD 153-4*/AM 311 (Note: the Alleluia is added to the Benedicamus Domino and is not used hereafter)

Sunday, January 14, 2018

The mystery of the numbers Part II - The Second Sunday after Epiphany and the 'de psalmiis' responsories


Annunciation Cathedral (Jerusalem) Fresco of Marriage at Cana.jpg
Annunciation Cathedral (Jerusalem) : Fresco of Marriage at Cana.
photo by See The Holy Land



Last week I suggested that the Gospel for the Sunday within the former Octave of the Epiphany, on our Lord's teaching in the Temple at the age of twelve, relates to the idea of the twelve days of Christmas.

This week the Gospel is the story of the wedding at Cana, and it too includes some important number symbolism which I want to look at, particularly focusing on some possible links between the the six water jars of the Gospel, and the first of the Matins responsories for this Sunday, and whose text comes from Psalm 6.

In the twentieth century it was proposed that the core of the psalm based responsories used in this period actually represent a set of proto-responsories that were originally used throughout the year, and their ordering through the week was thought to attest to an earlier version of the Roman Office psalm cursus. [1]

I want to suggest that in fact these responsories were chosen, probably in the late seventh or eighth century, for their links to the season and the readings used in them.  So today, a bit of a taster for my theory, looking at the first of the set.

When does Epiphanytide end?

In both the Roman and Benedictine Offices, the 'ordinary' of the Office reverts, this week, to 'time throughout the year (aside for the Marion cycles at Compline, and in the Office of Our Lady on Saturday).

As Gregory DiPippo has pointed out over at New Liturgical Movement, however, in a useful post on when the Christmas season ends, the Gospels over the next few Sundays (as well, it should be noted, as the Propers at Mass) all continue to reflect the key themes encapsulated in the feast of the Epiphany.

This Sunday for example, the Gospel is the miracle performed at the wedding at Cana, one of the three events explicitly commemorated in the feast as a public 'manifestation of Christ's glory':
And the third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee: and the mother of Jesus was there. And Jesus also was invited, and his disciples, to the marriage.  And the wine failing, the mother of Jesus saith to him: They have no wine. And Jesus saith to her: Woman, what is that to me and to thee? my hour is not yet come.  His mother saith to the waiters: Whatsoever he shall say to you, do ye. 
Now there were set there six waterpots of stone, according to the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three measures apiece. Jesus saith to them: Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim.  And Jesus saith to them: Draw out now, and carry to the chief steward of the feast. And they carried it.  And when the chief steward had tasted the water made wine, and knew not whence it was, but the waiters knew who had drawn the water; the chief steward calleth the bridegroom,  And saith to him: Every man at first setteth forth good wine, and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse. But thou hast kept the good wine until now. 
This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee; and manifested his glory, and his disciples believed in him.
The wedding and the Christmas season

There is a lovely sermon on this Gospel by St Bede, which explains the mystical significance of the wedding, and its links to the Nativity:
Christ descended from heaven to earth in order to connect the Church to himself in spiritual love.  His nuptial chamber was the womb of his Incorrupt mother...and from their he came forth like a bridegroom to join the Church to himself. [2]
St Bede also nicely links together the whole of the greater Christmas season:
As the sixth age of the world began, the Lord appeared in the flesh [Christmas]; on the eighth day after his nativity he was circumcised in accordance with the law [Octave of Christmas]; on the thirty-third day after this he was brought to the temple and the offerings stipulated by the law were made for him. [Feast of the Purification].  
The water jars transformed into wine at the wedding at Cana, he goes on to explain, represent 'knowledge of sacred scripture, which both cleanses its hearers from the stain of sin and gives [them] drink from the font of holy cognition', they contain 'the saving waters of the scriptures'.

And that there of six of them, he suggests, refers to the six ages of the world (from St Augustine - the first from Adam to Noah; the second from the Flood to Abraham; and so forth).  Each of these eras, he suggests both foreshadows and is transformed for us by Christ: the Flood becomes baptism for example.

But the piece of number symbolism that I particularly draw you attention to is the link he makes between the number of jars and baptism on the 'eighth day':
Behold, the sixth hyria [water jar] [is] for cleansing the contagion of sin, for giving drink from the joys of life, and for bringing cleaner flowing waters to others.  But in the circumcision of the eighth day you may understand baptism, which has redeemed us from the death of our sins into the mystery of the Lord's resurrection. 
The Matins responsories: Psalm 6

It seems to me that this symbolism helps explain the choice of the Psalm used in the first Matins responsory for this Sunday, Domine ne in ira tua.

The meaning of psalm numbers

First consider the significance of the number of the psalm - Psalm 6; 6 water jars.  ,

We tend to be oblivious to the significance the Fathers gave to the number of psalms, since these days every book of Scripture is divided into chapters and assigned verse numbers.

But chapter and verse numbers are in fact largely an early modern invention; originally only the psalms had 'chapter' numbers and the Fathers considered these to be part of the inspired text.  Accordingly, Patristic psalm commentaries often point to their significance in the context of the content of the psalm.  St Benedict's contemporary Cassiodorus, for example, comments that:
It is not without significance that he set the character of the penitent within the number six, which is acknowledged as perfect in the discipline of numbers.  
On the sixth day God created man; in the sixth age, the Lord Christ deigned to come into the world for the salvation of men, so that this reckoning seems to embrace both man's beginning and the absolution of his sins. [3]  
Psalm 6 is the also first of the penitential psalms, and so the emphasis St Bede places on the transformation of the water into wine as signifying the cleansing of our sins is therefore particularly appropriate, and reflected in several of the other (psalmic and non-psalmic) responsories used over this week.  Indeed, Pope Sergius I (650-701) instituted an early morning procession before Mass on the Feast of the Purification, at which black vestments were worn, to mark the end of the season.[4]

Psalm titles

The second link is the reference St Bede makes back to the eighth day, the Circumcision of Our Lord, and its baptismal associations.

Psalm 6 has the following title in the vulgate: 'In finem, in carminibus. Psalmus David. Pro octava', or 'Unto the end, in verses, a psalm for David, for the octave'.

While modern interpreters either ignore the titles altogether, or take them very literally, the Fathers devoted a great deal of consideration to their allegorical meanings.

And several Patristic commentaries, including that of the fifth century Roman monk Arnobius Junior, interpreted the reference to the 'octave' in the title of Psalm 6 as a reference to circumcision and baptism, a theme they saw reflected symbolically in the verse of Psalm 6 where the psalmist speaks of floods of tears drenching his bed each night.

The second responsory: Psalm 9

Now all of the above could be dismissed if the links to the season ended with the first responsory.

In fact, however, if we look at the responsories set for the Sundays in Epiphanytide through the lens of Patristic interpretations, similar linkages can be found for all of the responsories set for these Sundays.

Consider, for example the second of the set, which uses verses from Psalm 9.

The Vulgate gives the  title of Psalm 9 as 'In finem, pro occultis filii. Psalmus David', or  'Unto the end, for the hidden things of the Son. A psalm for David.'

St Augustine's commentary on the psalm links this very directly to the idea of the manifestation, or epiphany of Christ:
What then are the hidden things of the Son? By which expression we must first understand that there are some things of the Son manifest, from which those are distinguished which are called hidden. Wherefore since we believe two advents of the Lord, one past, which the Jews understood not: the other future, which we both hope for; and since the one which the Jews understood not, profited the Gentiles; For the hidden things of the Son is not unsuitably understood to be spoken of this advent, in which blindness in part is happened to Israel, that the fullness of the Gentiles might come in. (Enarrations on the Psalms)
That the final sentence of St Augustine's commentary on the Psalm (referencing Romans 11) also links very neatly to the first Nocturn readings of Matins during this period, which are from the Epistles of St Paul.

Indeed, as it turns out, St Augustine's commentaries on the psalms, and his extensive use of St Paul's Epistles (which were read at Matins during this period) in them, are quite central, I think, to this whole story.  But more on this anon...

References

[1]  R. Le Roux: ‘Etude de l’office dominical et férial: les répons “de psalmis” pour les matines de l’Epiphanie à la Septuagésime selon les cursus romain et monastique’, EG, vi (1963), 39–148.  The most recent version of this theory was summarised by Laszlo Dobszay in 'The Divine Office in History', in T&T Clark Companion to Liturgy, Alcuin Reid (ed), esp pp 217-9.

[2]  This and subsequent quotes are from Homily 1.14 in Bede the Venerable, Homilies on the Gospels, Book I, translation by Lawrence T Martin and David Hurst, Cistercian Studies 110, 1991).

[3] Cassiodorus: Explanation of the Psalms, vol 1, trans P G Walsh, Ancient Christian Writers series, 1991.

[4] Ordo Romani I

Saturday, January 13, 2018

Ordo notes for the second week after the Epiphany (Jan 14-20)

The notes below are designed to assist those wishing to say the Benedictine Office according to the officially approved 1962 books (noting that older books can readily be adapted to this end).

They provides notes on the variable parts of the Office only, so should be read in conjunction with the Learn to Say the  Benedictine Office notes provided elsewhere on the blog.

The Sunday hymns and Matins and Lauds

This week marks the return of the Office to the 'time throughout the year' texts.

Note that the Sunday hymns at Matins and Lauds change this week to Primo dierum and Aeterne Rerum Conditor.  These hymns are used up until the start of Lent.

Key to the abbreviations:


MD= Monastic Diurnal (MD, 2004 onwards editions)
AM =Antiphonale Monasticum 1934 (1995 edition).
LR=Liber Responsorialis (downloadable from CC Watershed) and the Nocturnale Romanum.
LH=Liber Hymnarius, 1983
SupAM=Supplement to the Antiphonale Monasticum published by Clear Creek.



THE ORDO




Sunday 14 January – Second Sunday after the Epiphany, Class II

[Note the feast of St Hilary is not marked in the Office this year]

Matins: All as in the psalter with hymn Primo dierum omnium (LH 182), except for the readings, responsories and collect

Lauds: Psalm schema 1 – 50, 117, 62; hymn Aeterne rerum Conditor; collect and canticle antiphon, MD 147*/AM 306

Prime to Vespers: All as in the psalter for Sunday; canticle antiphon, MD 147*

Monday 15 January – Class IV [EF: St Paul the first hermit; Ben. Confed: St. Maurus and St. Placid, disciples of our Holy Father St. Benedict - Memorial ; **In some places, Our Lady of Prompt Succor, Class I]

 **For Our Lady of Prompt Succor, MD 11 ff**

All as in the psalter: Collect MD 147*

Tuesday 16 January – Class IV; St Marcellus I, memorial [EF: Class III]

All as in the psalter; Collect MD 147*; for the commemoration at Lauds, MD [25]/AM 737/783

Wednesday 17 January - St Antony, Class III

Matins: Invitatory and hymn from Common of a Confessor, LR 190; psalms and antiphons of the day; reading 1&2 of the feria (combine readings 2&3; use responsories 1&3 of the feria), reading and responsory 3 of the feast

Lauds and Vespers: Psalms and antiphons of the day; the rest from the Common of a Confessor not a bishop, MD (78)/AM 672; collect MD [26]/AM 783

Prime to None: Antiphons etc from the Common

Thursday 18 January - Class IV [EF: Commemoration of St Prisca; start of Church Unity Octave, St Peter's Chair]

Three readings at Matins; Collect MD 147*

Friday 19 January - Class IV; Marius, Martha, Audifax and Abachum, memorial

Three readings at Matins; Collect MD 147*; for the commemoration at Lauds, MD [26]/AM 784

Saturday 20 January - SS Fabian and Sebastian, Class III

Matins: Invitatory and hymn from Common of martyrs, LR 175; psalms and antiphons of the day; reading 1&2 of the feria (combine readings 2&3; use responsories 1&3 of the feria), reading and responsory 3 of the feast

Lauds and Vespers: Antiphons and psalms of the day; rest from common of many martyrs, MD (43)/AM 648; collect MD [27]/AM 784

Prime to None: Antiphons etc from the Common

I Vespers of the Third Sunday after Epiphany, MD 147-8*/AM 163